5 most famous psychologists in the world in 20th century
There are top 5 psychologists of 20th century as mentioned below:
1)BURRHUS FREDERICK SKINNER:-
B.F. Skinner was an American psychologist who born in 1904 Susquehanna, Pensalvinia in U.S. He wrote “The Behaviour of Organisms” whose idea was based on how human behaves differently according to various stimuli.
He also wrote many more books like verbal behaviour, the technology of teaching and the analysis of behaviour and one more work that created controversy was “Beyond freedom and dignity”, he was totally impressed by the work of B. Watson’s philosophy of psychology called behaviorism.
According to Skinner, the future of humanity depends on abondaning concepts of individual freedom and dignity and engineering the human environment so that behaviour was controlled systematically to desireable ends and argued that freedom and dignity perhaps lead to self destruction. He also published his autobiography in 3 parts and these were:
1) Particulars of my life.
2) The shaping of a behaviourist.
3) A matter of consequences.
Just before his death i.e. was on 1990 “the analysis of behaviour” had been published in 1989. To make his career as a writer, Skinner got his PhD degree in psychology from Havard University (1931).He was an inventor also and there is a popular concept named as “Skinner box” is also here. And he was a social philosopher as well.
2) JEAN WILLIAM FRITZ PIAGET:-
Jean Piaget was a great psychologist who was born in 1896 in Neuchatel, Switzerland. Jean worked on child development which comes under GENETIC EPISTEMOLOGY, it includes both Cognitive Development & Epistemological view which mainly focused on intellectuality of child. His theory also impacted on other fields too ie. on education, genetics and on sociology.
Jean studied zoology, philosophy and yes offcourse psychology. And being a writer, he wrote many books like The Language And Thought Of The child, Judgement and Reasoning in Child, The Origin Of Intelligency In Children, The Early Growth Of Logic In Child.
3) SIGISMUND FREUD:-
Freud born in 1856 in Freiberg in mahren, Moravia, Austrian Empire. He got a degree from the University of Vienna and became a neurologist (1881).
He was a psychoanalyst also who wrote versious books like The Interpretation Of Dreams(in which he observed the complex symbolic processes underlying dream formation), The Psychopathology Of Everyday Life(he clarified the concepts of id, ego and superegoTotem & Taboo and Civilization and its Discontents.
In his controversial 3 Essays On the Theory Of Sexuality in which he described the complicated stages of psychosexual development (oral, anal and phallic). And atlast he died in (1939) due to high dose of morphine.
4) ALBERT BANDURA:-
He was a Canadian- American psychologist who was born in 1925 in Mundare, Alberta Canada. And he got his bachelors degree in psychology from the University of Columbia and then he went to university of lowa for PhD.
He is known as the “Originator Of Social Learning Theory” renamed as “Social Cognitive Theory” & “Self Efficacy” as he worked on social cognitive theory, therapy and personality psychology and also observed the transition state between behavioursism and congitive psychology.
He also performed an experiment called “Bobo Doll Experiment” for the concept of ‘Observational learning’. He is also popular for ‘Reciprocal Determinism’ according to that,”environment causes behaviour, true; but bahaviour also causes environment”. All that was his important contribution in the field of psychology and he died in 2021 due to because of congested heart failureness.
5) LEON FESTINGER:-
Leon was a social psychologist and was born in 1919, New York City, New York. He had been graduated from university of lowa in 1941 and then he went to Massachusetts institute of technology at the research centre for group dynamics. He did his PhD in 1942.
He gave a theory a of “Cognitive Dissonance” is a part of decision-making; it contributes in conflictions of attitudes, behaviours or beliefs, this produces a feeling of mental discomfort leading to alteration in one of the attitudes, behaviours or beliefs to reduce discomfort and restore balance and another one is “Social Comparison Theory”.
In his Communication Theory, he explained that people get suspectable to pressure when they attracted to social group. And he died in 1989 he was suffering from liver cancer and then he got dead.